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Research References

Biological Activity

1. Winter CA, Risley EA & Nuss GW, Carrageenin Induced Oedema in Hind Paw of the Rat as an Assay for Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 111:544-547 (1962).

2. Ormrod DJ & Miller TE, Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Agents Using 1251 Labeled Human Serum Albumin to Quantify Footpad Oedema Volume in the Rat. Pharm Res, 8: 1270-1273 (1991).

Published Scientific Papers

1. Gibson RG, Gibson SLM, Conway V & Chappell D. Perna Canalliculus in the treatment of Arthritis. The Practitioner, 224, 995-999, (1980)

2. Rainsford KD & Whitehouse MW. Gastro-protective and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Green Lipped Mussel. (Perna canaliculus) Preparation. Arzneim-Forsch. /Drug Research, 30(11), 2128-2132, (1980).

3. Miller TE & Ormrod D. The Anti-inflammatory Activity of Perna Canaliculus (NZ green lipped mussel). New Zealand Medical Journal, 667, 187-193 (1980).

4. Couch RAF, Ormrod DJ, Miller TE & Watkins WB. Anti-inflammatory Activity in Fractionated Extracts of the Green-Lipped Mussel. New Zealand Medical Journal, 720, 803-806 (1982).

5. Miller TE & Wu H. In Vivo Evidence for Prostaglandin Inhibitory Activity in New Zealand Green-Lipped Mussel Extract. New Zealand Medical Journal, 755, 355-357 (1984).

6. Billard H. Extract of Perna Canaliculus (New Zealand Green-Lipped Mussel) in Rheumatology. La Gazette Medicale, 92(7), 1-5, 1985.

7. Audeval B & Bouchacourt P. Double blind, placebo controlled study of the Mussel Perna Canaliculus (New Zealand Green-Lipped Mussel) in Gonarthritis (arthritis of the knee). La Gazette Medicale, 93 (38), 1986.

8. Kosuge T, Tsuji K, Ishida H & Yamaguchi T. Isolation of an Anti-histamine Substance from Green-Lipped Mussel (Perna Canaliculus). Chem. Pharm. Bull, 34, 4825-4828, 1986.

9. Miller TE, Dodd J., Ormrod D & Geddes R. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Glycogen Extracted from Perna canaliculus (NZ Green-Lipped Mussel). Agents and actions, 38, C139-C142, 1993.

10. Ormrod DJ, Dodd JR, Geddes R & Miller TE. Demonstration and Characterization of anti-inflammatory activity in a carbohydrate (glycogen) extract of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus). Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Blackwell Scientific Publications, p160, 1994.

Commissioned Scientific Papers

1. Daum A, Roche Pharmaceuticals, The influence of Seatone� (RO 49-0282/100), and Fractions of Seatone�, on the Established Adjuvant Arthritis of the Rat.

2. Miller TE, Ormrod DJ & Findon G, Department of Medicine, University of Auckland. Evaluation of the Effect of Administration on Cell-Mediated Immune Mechanisms Determined Using in Vitro and In Vivo Analysis of T Lymphocyte Function.

Recent Research Not Yet Published

1. Horimitsu Orimh, Michio Fujita, Tomoyuki Omura, Nobuyuki Kirihara (Division of Veterinary Radiology, Nippon Veterinary and Animal Science University) and Kenjiro Shimada. Clinical Effects of the extract of the New Zealand Green-Lipped Mussel on Dogs and Cats with Joint Diseases. Research was conducted from September 1, 1997 - July 31, 1998 in veterinaries in the Tokyo district.

2. Pollard Brendan, Slacek Brigitte, Ankenbauer-Perkins Kim; Animal Health Services Centre, Massey University, Palmerstown North, New Zealand. Final Report of the Efficacy of Green-Lipped Mussel Extract in the Management of Degenerative Joint Disease in Dogs. Conducted between 4 June 1997 - 12 October 1998.


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